Projected global energy demand for heating vs. cooling, 1970-2100
Source: Isaac, M., van Vuuren, D.P., 2009. "Modeling global residential sector energy demand for heating and air conditioning in the context of climate change". Energy Policy 37, 507–521.
Key Message: Energy demand for cooling in buildings will overtake demand for heating in the long run.
Breakdown of heating and cooling energy use today (selected countries)
* Cooling is included for Japan, the US, Kuwait and the UAE.
Key Message: In the countries assessed, fossil fuels are an important source of energy for total heating while cooling is powered by electricity.
*Japan includes heating and cooling.
No centralised cooling systems are in operation in Kuwait.
Key Message: DHC uses a wide variety of generation sources across countries. In most countries, the share of renewable resources is modest.
Breakdown of fuel use in DHC systems worldwide, 2014.
Key Message: Most DHC energy is currently provided by fossil fuels, while renewables account for only a minor proportion of the energy used in DHC systems.
Mix of district heat and cooling generation under REmap compared to Reference Case
Based on IRENA estimates
Key Message: There is additional potential for the various renewable energy technologies, in both the heating and the cooling segments. Realizing this potential would increase the share of renewable energy in DHC in all countries assessed by IRENA